What is the evolution -
Question: “Did mankind come to be by evolution or intelligent design and why is the answer so controversial and important?”
The Theory of Evolution states that new generations of species are evolving through genetic mutation to a different and more superior state than past generations and that given millions and even billions of years, organisms can evolve into new species.
The Theory of Creationism holds that all forms of life and the world itself were created by a divine creator, commonly referred to as God.
No scientific method can prove evolution, the age of the earth, or creationism, because we have no reliable age indicators to scientifically evaluate what and when events in the past occurred. All time calculations involve circular reasoning based on assumption and tools that have proven to be very inadequate. Many samples that have been declared millions of years old have later been proven to be only a few hundred years old, bringing the age of the earth into serous question. If the earth is younger than many declare, then there is insufficient time for evolution.
These are the only two existing theories explaining how man came to exist. Man either evolved and is still evolving or man was created by God. The quantifiable evidence is the same for both groups. It is the individual world view of each group that causes that group to interpret the same evidence differently as human tendency is to dismiss evidence that dispels the theory a person favors.
Why is the debate so important to so many? Because it has a complete and compelling effect on who we are and how we respond in life. If we believe in evolution, then we just evolved. There is no creator, and we are not accountable to anyone because there is no such thing as right or wrong – beyond what we want to make of it within the limits society permits. We are free to be our own god. But if we believe in creation, then there is a God who is our creator and as such has the right to determine what is right and wrong and to set boundaries that we are to live within. For those who want to run their own lives without any responsibility to a creator, it is imperative that they embrace evolution, regardless of any evidence to the contrary. If, some day, evolution is proven true, it does not prove there is no God. But if evolution is shown to be false, then there must be a God that all should honor. Unfortunately, the debate is very emotional, often going past the realm of reason.
In consideration of those who may not believe in the Bible, this examination of evolution verses creationism will primarily be based on scientific evidence with just a few scriptural comments at the end. However, this immediately imposes a problem that must be recognized. Evidence, assumptions, and considerations offered to support a theory cannot always be supported or proven even though some will claim assumptions as actual proof of their theory. In attempting to determine the outcome of this debate, we need to determine if evidence offered in support is actually based on man’s unsupported theory, wishful thinking, or scientific evidence.
Evolutionists admit that they are not sure how evolutionary life started, but they do offer a few general theories. Methane, water, hydrogen, and ammonia came together either in the atmosphere, a puddle of water, or a deep-
The following are the primary considerations used by evolutionists in their attempt to support their beliefs that evolution is true.
1. The fossil record
Evolutionists admit that the fossil record is incomplete. This is because there are no fossil trails that support the million of years between each evolutionary stage of each species. But they maintain that different but similar species are the transitional forms that support evolution. Evolutionists keep looking for but have never found a clear lineage from one species to the next, such as a fish evolving -
2. The distribution of species
This is the belief that similar mammals, such as the marsupials that live on different continents must have existed before the tectonic plates separated and that they then evolved into similar species on different continents. Evolutionists maintain that biological diversity results from descendants of local or migrant species adapting to their changing environment. But there are no intermediate indicators to support the theory of biological diversity.
3. Common anatomical structures
This is the belief that evolution must be in operation because of the similar construction of different species. For example, humans, seals, primates, and bats all have the same five-
The most striking evidence for evolutionists is that since all creatures share similar genetic code (DNA), then all creatures must have evolved from one original organism, the theory being that the more similar the DNA, the closer the development of the organisms. This may be possible, but if a creator had a DNA system that worked, wouldn’t it make sense to use it on all species? Furthermore, if one species had evolved out of another, wouldn’t we expect to find not similar, but different DNA for each new species?
5. Similarities during development
A wide variety of organism from worms, mice, and birds to humans have very similar appearances immediately after conception. As such, they must have all evolved from the same ancient ancestor. This theory only proves that they look similar after conception then quickly develop into different species. It does not provide any indication of origination.
6. Molecular Biology
The proteins in all organisms are very similar and are composed of the same 20 amino acids, assembled in different manners to satisfy the organism’s needs. The assumption is made that if all organisms use the same 20 amino acids, then all organisms must have originated from the same microorganism. As above, if a creator had worked out an amino acid/protein system that worked so perfectly, wouldn’t he likely use it with all organisms?
7. Convergent evolution
This argument basically says, if animals on different continents have similar physical bodies and are exposed to similar environmental conditions, then they must have evolved similarly, because of the similar conditions. For example, both the American pronghorn and the African antelope face fast moving predators, so over millions of years, they both evolved long legs for sprinting away. However, isn’t it more likely that the fast moving predators would have killed off the short legged species millions of years before any of them could have developed long legs?
8. Present day evolution
During Britain’s Industrial Revolution, scientists noticed that pepper moths with white wings were diminishing and being replaced by moths with black wings, to better match the local tree bark that had become dark from industrial pollution. They announced that this proved that evolution could occur in a short period of time. Sometime later, scientists washed the moth’s black wings and found that under the black soot, the wings were still white.
These considerations offered in support of evolution are rather weak indicators. Let’s see if creationists can do any better.
Many confuse natural selection with evolution. While the theory of natural selection permits enhancing desired characteristics of a species, such as hundreds of different dog breeds, those breeds still remain part of the same species. Natural selection does not produce a new species. There are zero examples of one species being transformed into a new or different species. As above, the theory of natural selection indicates why one species is better able to adapt to environmental changes and thrive while some similar but less adaptive species have increasingly reduced numbers, or die out completely. The point being that the species is still unique and not a new species.
Minimum Requirements for the First Organism
There are some minimum requirements for the first primitive life form to occur.
1. In order to survive -
2. The first organism needed to be pre-
3. The first organism needed the capacity to make needed components, such as: RNA polymerase, gyrases to untwist DNA, and ribosomes to make proteins.
4. The first organism would also have needed a complete reproduction system, with a way to read pre-
5. The first organism would have needed a fully functioning systems to intake food, convert it to energy, and expel waste.
6. The first organism would also need to have to have some kind of membrane. Otherwise, all its precious contents would likely have drifted away, as the shifting movement of water from wind and the variations in water temperature affected it. To protect the contents, the membrane would also have had to be completely closed. But if it had been closed, then how could the content have been produced, or how could the content have gotten into the membrane? And how could the membrane have been produced without the cell’s production and the DNA code?
7. All the "circuitry," signaling, DNA code and feedback infrastructure which allow different systems and subsystems to coordinate and work together would have had to be in place before the organism could "come alive". This is because at the point of coming alive, hundreds of interdependent tasks would have needed to start working simultaneously.
The above minimum requirements for the first life-
All of the above conditions and more would need to occur simultaneously for an organism’s life to suddenly start and be sustained. The claim that the first organism came into existence over a billion year process has no consideration. Simple probability demonstrates that all of the organism’s sophisticated requirements for life could not have evolved, not even in a billion years. They needed to come into existence, simultaneously.
We look at the incomprehensible complexity of the human body and the world around us and we realize that no individual could design anything close to a human body and that there is no way that a few chemicals in a puddle of water could transform and evolve into a human body. The design of the human body requires an intelligent designer, and that could only be God.
The following scientific, earth age, and biblical evidences are only a few of the many examples used by creationists to support their belief that creation is true.
1. No transitional fossils -
If an ancient fossil that supposedly evolved into a recent fossil actually had existed, there would be millions of intermediary fossils in the fossil record, in between those two fossils, proving an evolutionary progression over the centuries. But there are no such fossil records.
In fact, the fossils, billions of them, which have been found in various rock layers around the globe -
2. Transitional fossils disproven
Evolutionists used to be able to cite six transitional forms, between ape and man, to prove that evolution actually happened. But now they have none. The Neanderthal Man fossils were once considered to represent a primitive sub-
Two other links which have been disproven are the Piltdown Man -
On the other hand, the fossil records do support creationism of each individual species. In the fossil record, life appears abruptly and in complex forms. There are no intermediate links between apes and man. Science is continually disproving evolutionary indicators.
3. Decay of human DNA -
The Law of Entropy is defined by the Merriam-
The Law of Entropy is well accepted by the scientific community and has never been disproven. The theory of evolution maintains that organisms improve, becoming more complex through mutation, given enough time. However, science otherwise maintains that everything runs down or becomes less complex. If this last statement is true, then the human race must be slowly wearing down and heading toward increasing disorder.
Dr. J.C. Sanford (retired Professor of Genetics at Cornell University, inventor of the “gene gun,” and author of Genetic Entropy), estimates that the human race has a total life span of approximately 6,000 years… Therefore, if we apply the law of entropy, the human race, rather than evolving to a higher state is actually degrading and at some point in the distant future, may no longer be able to reproduce.
Dr. Sanford cites research that the human race’s DNA is degenerating 1 – 2% per generation, as a result of accumulation of genetic mutation over the centuries. A 1% decline per generation would limit the span of human life to approximately 6,000 years. This life span very closely matches that detailed in the Bible. For more information, click.
Clearly, if science has proven that the human race is deteriorating at the cellular level, then the theory of evolution which says that we are evolving into more advanced beings, is false.
4. Incomprehensible complexity
So far, science has only scratched the surface of understanding the full complexity of the human body. It is composed of approximately 30 trillion cells, and each cell produces energy, kills off invading bacteria, rids the cell of toxic substances, recycles worn-
This reproduction of cells is controlled by a genetic code that controls the assembly of amino acids. This key code is also used as a quality control that will destroy the assembled cell if it does not exactly match the key. One of the most interesting facets of a cell is that the key code, with thousands of potential combinations, must be an exact match, for the cell to survive. But no one can explain how such complex key codes can exist, except by the hand of a designer with a superior intelligence -
Major components of a Human Cell
These molecular machines, aka cells, are irreducibly complex. This means that in order for the machine to function, all parts of the machine must be completely formed, in their right places, in their right sizes, in full operating order, and all at the same time. If just one part of this machine is not present or does not function, the cell will not work.
The theory that evolutionary life came about gradually is not feasible. Even many evolutionists admit that some parts, such as the human eye, could not have evolved. It had to be created or formed completely at one time.
Borel's Law tells us that anything with a probability less than 1 in 10 to the 50th power -
The odds of flipping a coin and it turning up heads 100 times in succession are 1 in 10, to the 30th power.
So what's the probability that human beings could have evolved? Consider a lesser complex life form, the single bacterium. The probability that even 3% of a bacterium’s DNA could have been correctly arranged by accident is approximately 1 in 10 to the 60,000 power. That’s 10, followed by 60,000 zeros. This puts evolution outside the realm of reality and into the realm of impossibility. The only logical conclusion is that life could not have originated by random trial and error, but only by intelligent design. Click for a more detailed explanation of probability.
6. Natural selection
Natural selection is the theory that organisms better adapted to their environment tend to survive and reproduce, and those organisms that are not suited to their environment die off. Natural selection says that man developed from a single cell, dying off multiple times until by chance man developed. Lets consider the human nervous system. It is the part of the human body that coordinates a person’s involuntary and voluntary actions and transmits signals between different parts of the body, essentially the body’s electrical wiring. The human nervous system is 45 miles long and consists of up to 1,000 trillion connections. Each neural pathway must be correctly connection at each end to function correctly. If not correctly connected, the person either functions poorly or dies. The problem is, how could this amazing system ever grow from one cell to be 45 miles long, with trillions of correct connections, without a person dying at every proposed new design that chance offered. The answer is, it is impossible for a human body to exist while waiting million of years for the nervous system to develop. The nervous system is just too critical to the proper control and operation of the human body. For the human body to function, the entire nervous system would have had to be completed and implemented at one time. Only a very intelligent designer could have ever designed and implemented the human nervous system.
We are told that a giraffe developed a very long neck to get leaves from treetops. But what did he eat for millions of years while waiting for a longer neck, and how did the earliest giraffe tell the next generation to grow a longer next? And the next generation, and the next … till at last a neck evolved that could reach the treetop leaves? Giraffe also have a very unique and complex series of vales that constantly monitor and control the blood pressure of the head. Without these vales, if the giraffe quickly lifted it’s head, it would likely faint. But how would natural selection ever be able to design these unique valves? The simple answer, it couldn’t. This also raises the question, how could an organism survive at all, in the middle of the changing process? How could a fish survive while changing into a dog? Would it have scales or fur? Gills or lungs? Fins or legs? It would be virtually impossible for an animal to evolve into another animal and survive the evolutionary process.
Here’s another example: If a leg of a reptile were to evolve over millions of years into a bird’s wing, it would become a useless leg long before it became a good wing and the reptile/bird would die.
8. Problems with Dating Methods
The theory of carbon dating offers some accuracy, but only up to a maximum of 10,000 years. In actual application, there are many variables and unknowns that can significantly effect the results of carbon dating, producing erroneous conclusions. One specie of living lizard is 3,000 years old when carbon dated.
Beyond carbon dating, only circular reasoning is available. This is how circular reasoning works: If a rock is found near a fossil that is believed to be 100,000 years old, then the assumption is that the rock must also be 100,000 years old, when they actually have no idea the age of the rock nor the fossil. Two hundred years ago, most scientists believed the earth was 50,000 years old. But as scientists proved that evolution could not possibly occur in a mere 50,000 years, they kept pushing the earth’s age back until they now claim it is 4.5 to 5 billion years old.
Another example of a dating problem is associated with a Graptolite Fossil (a tiny extinct animal). Evolutionists believe they lived about 410 million years ago, so they use the presence of graptolite fossils as an indication of a rock layer’s age. But in 1993, all that changed, when living graptolites were found in the South Pacific. Obviously, graptolites can be found in any layer and are not 410 million years old.
9. Male -
If one species mates successfully with a different species, the result will always be a sterile creature as when a horse and a donkey produce a sterile mule. Therefore, how could the macro evolutionary process advance? Mutants cannot reproduce. But against all odds, if one was actually fertile, it would have to find a fertile mate of the same species, that was fertile at just the right moment on the overall evolutionary time line. But even then, the problem would be that all in-
10. Louis Pasteur
Louis Pasteur in the 1860s was led to the scientific realization that only living organisms could beget other living organisms. Pasteur's research and findings essentially debunked the concept of spontaneous generation, that life could arise spontaneously from nonliving matter. While evolutionists might theorize otherwise, no real proof has ever been offered, to debunk Pasteur’s findings.
11. Albert Einstein
After years of study into the structure and origin of the universe, Albert Einstein acknowledged that "an intelligence of such superiority that, compared with it, all the systematic thinking and acting of human beings is an utterly insignificant reflection" (The Quotable Einstein, Alice Calaprice, editor, 1996, p. 151).
Living matter does not and can not be spontaneously generated from non-
But just suppose, for a moment, that in a primordial atmosphere, ammonia, water, methane and energy could combine to form amino acids. The amino acids would then form DNA, a thread-
For example, each hemoglobin molecule is made up of two twisted, matching chains of 574 amino acids, with each position on each chain being filled by one of four types of amino acids, and each one of these amino acids must be linked together in a specific order. If all the amino acids were not present at the same time and assembled in the correct order, you would not have life. You would have zip -
Earth’s age evidence
Evolutionists admit that evolution cannot occur in thousands or even millions of years, but needs billions of years. Therefore, the actual age of the earth is critical. If sufficient evidence can be provided that the earth is much younger than claimed, then evolution is impossible.
Copious evidences reveals that evolutionary dating methods are not reliable. The following examples demonstrate the folly of giving unqualified endorsement to the various “clocks” that are reputed to indicate an ancient earth.
1. The earth’s age -
Rock samples taken from Hawaii’s 1801 volcano Hualalei, formed just over 200 years ago, were dated by the potassium-
2. The earth’s magnetic field
The earth’s magnetic field is only a few thousand years old, says Dr. Thomas Barnes, Professor Emeritus of Physics at the University of Texas. In addition, several studies indicates that the earth’s magnetic field has a consistent decay rate. Given its rate of decay, the earth would have little or no magnetic field in as little as 25,000 years from its beginning. As such, the existence of life on earth must be less than 25,000 years old, as life could not exist without the presence of the magnetic field.
DNA cannot last over a few thousand years, but DNA has been found in bacteria that is supposed to be 425 million years old. These findings raise some real questions about the validity of dating techniques and indicate that the earth must be younger than some claim.
4. DNA life
Blood vessels, blood cells, and proteins can at best, only service for a few thousand years. But dinosaur that have been claimed to be 65 million years old still had blood vessels, blood cells, and proteins present. No scientist believe it is possible, but since they have found dinosaurs with well-
5. Pools of pressure in underground reservoirs
There are huge underground reservoirs of oil and water in the earth that are characterized by extremely high fluid pressure. The pressure is slowly leaking out. It is estimated that the pressure will leak out in a few thousand years. If the reservoirs were 4.5 billion years old, then the pressure would have long been gone. Dr. Melvin Cook, former professor at the University of Utah and 1968 winner of the Nitro Nobel Award, argues that these reservoirs were formed only a few thousand years ago. If true, then evolution would be false.
In 1810, the population of the earth was about 1 billion people. By 2020, the earth’s population will hit 7 billion. This fits the biblical timeline perfectly, which estimates the earth’s population to be approximately 6,000 years old. But according to the evolutionary timeline, the world population today should be over 3 trillion people. Where are all the missing people that evolution indicates should be inhabiting the earth?
7. Sea cliff erosion
Wind drives waves that cause sea cliffs around the world to erode. Scientific studies have demonstrated that erosion averages 3 to 7 feet per year. Using erosion of 3 feet per year and an estimated world age of 10,000 years, the East and West coasts of America would erode about 5.6 miles in that time frame. At 3 feet per year, America would completely erode away in only 2.65 million years. That being the case, how could the world be 4.5 billion years old?
8. Niagara Falls erosion
During the last 10,000 years, Niagara Falls’ erosion rate has been 3 feet per year, and during the last 200 years, it has been 5 feet per year. At 3 feet per year, it would take the falls 35,200 years to erode back into Lake Erie. If the world were really 4.5 billion years old, there would be no Niagara Falls But the falls still exist because the age of the world is closer to only thousands of years in age.
9. Salt in the ocean
For years, scientists have been measuring the amount of sodium in the oceans and have found that an estimated 457 million tons are deposited into the oceans annually, while 122 million tons leave the ocean. The ocean is currently about 3.6% dissolved minerals, with salt being the primary mineral. If the ocean initially had no dissolved minerals in it at all, the ocean would now be approximately 25 to 42 million years old, based on its present-
10. Hotter Sun
Science believes that the sun’s power comes from multiple fusion reactions, of hydrogen into helium. As the hydrogen fuses, it should change the composition of the sun’s core, gradually increasing the sun’s temperature. If true, this means that the earth was colder in the past, below freezing 3.5 billion years ago. This means that an early earth would have been about 31°F less than it does today. That’s below freezing, where most life cannot exist. Life as we know it could not have existed more than about 600 to 800 million years ago. Even evolutionists maintain this is too short a period of time for evolution to have occurred.
11. Bacteria’s DNA
In 2000, scientists discovered the DNA of specific bacteria in a salt crystal which was conventionally dated at 250 million years old. The scientists were surprised to find that the DNA was still intact after the proposed 250 million years, as DNA normally breaks down quickly. Even in ideal conditions, for example, being frozen in ice, DNA is expected to break down completely in less than 800,000 years. Scientists were also shocked that the bacteria’s DNA was very similar to the DNA of modern bacteria, as it should have been significantly different, based on the rate of mutation over a 250 million year period.
A cell cannot exist without protein, and protein cannot exist without DNA and RNA molecules. In addition, the converse is also true, that DNA and RNA cannot exist without protein. Therefore, there is no natural way for a cell to evolve over millions and billions of years. The only alternative is that it must have been created.
Biological evidence demonstrates that the genetic code of even a single cell is much more complex than the most advanced computer program. DNA can only function in the cell, and a cell can only be made with a DNA code. The DNA and cell had to have come about at the same time or it could not exist. A cell could not have evolved.
12. Where is the helium
As uranium and thorium decay, helium is released into the atmosphere. Since helium is very stable and does not reach sufficient velocity to escape into outer space, the level of helium that does exist should be about 100 times higher than it is, if the earth were actually hundreds of millions of years old. As it stands, the present level of helium in the earth’s atmosphere indicates that the earth is only a few thousand years old.
13. Too much carbon 14
With carbon 14’s short 5,730 year half-
14. The universe
The universe is recognized as being “finely tuned.” For example, the elementary forces of gravity, size, electromagnetism, and the position of the planets, all need to be exactly what they are and where they are, in order for the universe to exist, at all. In addition, the earth’s size, its distance from the sun, its rotational speed, and its composition, along with many other factors, are all just right for life to now exist on earth. A mere two-
Click for over 100 indicators of a younger earth.
While some people choose to believe that the scriptures speak figuratively, as a kind of cultural mythology, we should consider the possibility that they actually speak the truth and can be verified scientifically.
The very first verse in the Old Testament says, In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth (Genesis 1:1). In the New Testament, Jesus confirmed, by saying, For in those days there will be such tribulation as has not been from the beginning of the creation that God created until now, and never will be (Mark 13:19).
Thus says God, the Lord, who created the heavens and stretched them out, who spread out the earth and what comes from it, who gives breath to the people on it and spirit to those who walk in it … (Isaiah 42:5).
The Scripture Affirms a Brief History of Man
Luke 3 provide the genealogy of Jesus all the way back to Adam, who was the “first man” (1 Corinthians 15:45). The Bible provides chronological dating from Adam to Abraham of 1,948 years. From Abraham to Christ of approximately 2,050 years, and from Jesus to present day of just over 2,000 years. Thus, from Adam to present day is just a little over 6,000 years of human life on earth.
While some may want to disbelieve the Bible, please recall that it -
In comparison, it takes much greater faith to believe in evolution than in creation. But many will not give up on evolution because they do not want to accept that the world was created by God -
For the sake of brevity, we have presented only a few of the hundreds of examples that support the Theory of Creation.
A comparative example
The Boeing Company makes the 747 airplane in Everett, WA. It took many knowledgeable designers/engineers to design these aircraft, each of which is comprised of 3 million parts, plus fasteners. It also took knowledgeable manufacturing to make the parts and knowledgeable builders to assemble all the parts into planes. Then after approximately 30 years of service, each plane is retired to a desert storage area where it is disassembled and the parts are put into large outdoor boxes.
What is the likelihood that a mighty wind could come along and hover, like a cyclone, over all the open boxes, and in time the wind could randomly select parts and then be able to assemble the parts back into a plane? Maybe in a year, a million years, even billions of years? Or maybe never? This concept is similar to the Theory of Evolution’s random-
Now, some may say, that this example is not the same as how evolution is proposed to work, and perhaps that is partly right. But the likelihood of the wind assembling a 747 is about as likely as mankind emerging from a puddle of water, and with no parts, no DNA, no living cells, and all without the benefit of an intelligent designer.
While there is no conclusive evidence to prove either evolution or creation, a very large pool of evidence indicates that the Theory of Creation is correct. Today, evolutionists are having a hard time promoting evolution, even though they keep pushing it as truth, because repeatedly, science keeps proving evolution theories, reasoning, assumptions, and examples to be false.
Until evolutionists find the evidence they have sought since the beginning of the evolutionary movement, there actually is little to debate. The preponderance of evidence indicates that there is little to support the theory of evolution and that creation is the default explanation for man’ existence. That the miracle of life could only have come into existence from the efforts of a superior designer and we believe that designer is God.
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